How EOQ helps in Inventory Management?

Inventory Management also known as stock management is a crucial part of working capital management. EOQ is one of the most prominent models used widely for effective inventory management. EOQ calculates the ordering quantity of inventory using inputs of carrying cost, ordering cost, annual usage of the said inventory.

Working Capital Management is an important specialized function of financial management. Every component of working capital such as inventory, debtors or receivables, cash, creditors or payables, short-term debts, etc needs the effort to manage. Inventory comprises a major part of working capital and its funding. This makes its management critical, compared to other working capital components.

Two important questions of inventory management are ‘how much inventory should be ordered?’ and ‘when should it be ordered?’ In manufacturing and merchandising companies, inventory management is overemphasized. It is because the inventory covers the major part of the asset pie. Inventory is a part of current assets and it occupies a major share of working capital and hence it is necessary to ensure that it does not block too much of finance .

How EOQ helps in Inventory ManagementWhile we are planning for inventory management, the first thing that should be evaluated is the type of costs associated with it. However, there is a general presumption that inventory cost means the cost price of product stored as inventory. Practically, there are other costs as well, which are associated with inventory like ordering cost, carrying cost etc.

Various tools have been recommended for inventory management and new studies have added some innovative methods like just in time (JIT) management, total quality management (TQM). However, one of the proven, adopted and efficient models is economic order quantity (EOQ). This helps to answer a major question i.e. “What quantity should be ordered?” The quantity to be ordered should be optimum which optimizes everything whether it is the space required or the money blocked in the inventory. At the same time, quantity ordered should be sufficient to meet the needs. Insufficient inventory can lead to stoppage of production.

How to calculate EOQ?

To determine the quantity to be ordered EOQ uses following inputs like annual usage or demand, cost per order, carrying cost etc.

Annual Usage

It is the annual usage of that particular raw material.

Ordering Cost

Ordering cost is the cost associated with placing an order. It varies inversely with quantity ordered. More the quantity ordered, less is the number of order to be placed and therefore ordering cost incurred is less.

Carrying Cost

Carrying cost is the cost associated with storing and maintaining the inventory. The carrying cost varies directly with the order size. More the quantity ordered, more is the cost incurred in relation to storing and maintaining such inventory.

Since both the cost behaves in an opposite manner there is the need to find out an optimum quantity to be ordered that can maintain a tradeoff between ordering & carrying cost.

The total of ordering and carrying cost is minimized when optimum quantity or economic quantity “Q” is ordered.

Formula for EOQ

“Q” or “EOQ” is calculated using following Formula:

EOQ = ∑ (2 * ACPO * AUU) / (UC * CCP)

ACPO = Acquisition Cost Per Order
UC = Per Unit Cost
AUU = Annual Usage of Units
CCP = Percentage of Carrying Cost

Drawbacks of the EOQ Model:

Though EOQ gives an answer to how much inventory should be ordered, it does not give an answer to when should it be ordered. EOQ model assumes in an instantaneous procurement of material. However, in practicality, procurement of material needs some time. This is known as “lead time”. So, ordering level for the material is generally defined as: “Lead Time in days * Average Daily Usage”.

Thus, EOQ can be an effective tool in inventory management to find optimum quantity to be ordered. But, it cannot be adopted as one stop solution for total inventory management. Therefore, other techniques and methods need to be considered and adopted along with EOQ.

Last updated on : July 31st, 2017
What’s your view on this? Share it in comments below.

Leave a Reply

Negative Working Capital
  • Working Capital Calculation – Percentage of Sales Method
    Working Capital Calculation – Percentage of Sales …
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Invoice Discounting
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Invoice Discounting
  • Types of Working Capital
    Types of Working Capital
  • Advantage of Negative Working Capital
    Advantages of Negative Working Capital
  • Subscribe to Blog via Email

    Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

    Join 122 other subscribers

    Recent Posts

    Find us on Facebook


    Related pages


    advantages of liquidity ratiosdebenture securitymanagement accounting costing and budgetingbank profitability ratiosaccounts receivable days on handdifference between bond & debenturearbitrage pricing theory aptpayback period techniqueratio analysis interpretationwhat is capital rationing in financial managementthe accounting equation can be expressed aslimitations of npvtrade credit short term financingdistinguish between cost accounting and management accountingdividend theories in financial managementdefinition of zero based budgetingresidual claimwhy assets are debitedcapital lease lessor journal entriesinstallment contract definitionexpense meaning in hindiadvantages of hire purchase and leasingaccounting npvifrs impairment of assetslease vs hire purchaseformula for accounts receivable turnoverstock turnover rate definitionredeemable convertible preferred stockdifference between cash and accrual basisbuyers credit mechanismafter tax profit margin formulafeatures of convertible bondsconstant growth ddmcalculating asset turnover ratiothe use of cash budgeting proceduresebit in accountingwhat is double entry bookkeeping definitionaccounting eqationdebentures investopediabond vs debenturedefinition owners equityifrs impairmentroe dupont formulabird in the hand dividend theoryfinancial leverage vs operating leveragetypes of ratios in financial managementwhat is the meaning of hedging in financedeferred coupon bondshareholder wealth maximisationis high inventory turnover goodhorizontal merger real life exampleexplain the difference between fixed and variable costsdefinition of redeemable preference sharesgaap accounting rules for capitalizing costsoverhead variance analysiscash cycle and operating cycledeed of hypothecation meaninglong term debt to capital ratioexample of a fixed expenseformula of ebitdefine restrictive covenantsdp banking termcalculate the waccdefinition of preferred sharesdifference between leasing and financing a vehiclesundries definition accountingincrementalist approachcost of redeemable debtdebit and credits in accountingdividend growth model exampleformula dcfadvantages of internal benchmarkingmerits and demerits of budgetary controlmotives behind mergers and acquisitionsinternational capital budgeting ppt