Term Loan or Project Finance – A Long Term Source of Finance

The term loan is a long term secured debt extended by banks or financial institutions to the corporate sector for carrying out their long-term projects maturing between 5 to 10 Years which is normally repaid in monthly or quarterly equal installment. They are an external source of finance paid in installments governed by loan agreement and covenants.

All the capital requirements cannot be fulfilled by the promoters or equity share issues and that is where the term loans come into the picture. Term loan or project finance is a long term source of finance for a company normally extended by financial institutions or banks for a period of more than 5 years to a maximum of around 10 years. One common feature which helps management in relatively substituting equity by term loans is the longer term of the loan.

Suitable for:

The term loan is a type of funding which is most suitable for projects involving very heavy investment which is not possible by an individual or promoters. Big projects cannot be concluded in a year or two.

Term Loan or Project Finance – A Long Term Source of Finance

To yield return from them, the long-term perspective is required. Such big ventures are normally financed by big banks and financial institutions. If the investment is too large, several banks come together and finance it. Such type of term loan funding is also called as consortium loan.

The term loan is acquired for new projects, diversification of business, expansion projects, or for modernization or technology upgradations. Here also, the underlying fact is that the investment in these projects is normally very huge. Lack of option of funding from other sources such as equity etc for any reason also directs a company to go for the term loan.

Financial Leverage and Term Loan

At times, an important reason for selecting term loan is financial leverage. By opting for debt finance like term loan, a company tries to magnify the returns to their equity shareholders. This help management of a company achieve the core objective of wealth maximization for its shareholders and also preserve the control and share of existing shareholders.

Features of a Term Loan

Loan in any Currency

These loans are provided both in the home or foreign currency. Home currency loans are offered normally for a purchase of fixed assets such as land, building, plant and machinery, preliminary and preoperative expenses, technical know-how, working capital etc. On the other hand, foreign currency loans are offered for import of certain plant or machinery, payment of foreign consulting fee etc.

Secured Loan

Term loans come under secured category of loans. Two kinds of securities are there – primary and collateral. Primary security is the asset which is purchased using the loan amount and collateral security is the charge on other assets of the borrower.

Loan Instalments

Repayment of the loan is done in installments. These installments cover both principal and interest. Normally, loan installments are decided by banks based the borrower’s cash flow capacity. There may be installments paid monthly, quarterly, biannually, or even annually. Installments are normally equal but they may be structured based on the borrower’s business. Moratorium or grace period is also given by banks in which no installment or very low installment is asked from the borrower. Sometimes, small installments are kept in the initial year or two and then the remaining loan is split into the remaining maturity period making the later installments higher than the initial ones.

Maturity

Normally a term loan is ranging between 5 to 10 years. Forecasting for more than 10 years in the current changing business environment is very difficult.

Loan Agreement

 An agreement is drafted between the borrower and the bank regarding the terms and conditions of the loans which are signed by the borrower and is preserved with a bank.

Loan Covenant

Debt covenants are a part of a loan agreement. They are certain statements in the agreement which states certainly do’s and dont’s for the company. They are normally related to use of assets, creation of liabilities, cash flow, and control of the management. They are positive/ affirmative or negative in nature.

Last updated on : August 31st, 2017
What’s your view on this? Share it in comments below.

2 Comments

  1. john m george
  2. gabriel onyekachi

Leave a Reply

Lessor and Lessee
  • Euro Issues
    Euro Issues
  • Convertible Bonds
    Convertible Bonds
  • Back to back LC
    Back-To-Back Letter Of Credit
  • Lease Finance vs Installment Sale
    Lease Finance vs. Installment Sale
  • Subscribe to Blog via Email

    Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

    Join 122 other subscribers

    Recent Posts

    Find us on Facebook


    Related pages


    traceable fixed costsfinancial statements definition accountingmodigliani miller propositionhow to find irr using financial calculatoricr financedebtors turnover ratio interpretationdebtor day calculationdiscounted cash flow formulahow to calculate irr manuallyformula for ytmbreak even analysis advantages and disadvantagesformula for quick ratiomeaning of bonus issuenet profit margin rationbills payable and bills receivable meaningdebenture defsolvency ratios definitioneoq inventory modelmaximization of wealthdcf stock valuation modelcapital budgeting proposalshedging definition financecompute margin of safetyhow to calculate operating leverageconvertible debt conversion pricepartly convertible debenturescompounding technique of time value of moneywhat is non convertible debentures indiaamerican depository receipts and global depository receiptsexamples of fixed expenses and variable expensesoverdraft current accountpreferred shares cumulativesolvency ratio definitionissue of debentures as collateral securityincremental model advantages and disadvantagesprofitablility indexinterpolated rate calculationcurrent asset ratio formulacalculate average collection perioddefinition of zero budgetingaccrual accounting and cash accountingdisadvantages of retained profitmotives of mergerdebenture redemptioncommon size balance sheet ratiosirr accountingdefinition of differential costdefine lessee and lessorfinding internal rate of returnmro financecalculating dividends from balance sheetlimitations of capital budgetinginterpretation of earning per shareincremental budgeting definitionwhat is marginal costing in management accountingshort butterfly strategydebenture meaning in financecapitalizing interestdefine debenture stockcapm cost of capitalpresent value interest factor calculatorsolvability ratiocapital budget meaningledger meaning in marathitypes of transactions in transactional analysismerchandise inventory meaningkinds of mergersearnings capitalization modelinland bill of ladingwhat is the formula for gross profit marginpartly convertible debentures