Following is a diagrammatic representation of the Functions of Finance. Extracted from Prasath Saravana B, Padhuka’s Student’s Handbook on Cost Accounting And Financial Management.
PROCUREMENT/SOURCING OF FUNDS
Assessing the Requirement of Funds
The function of procurement of funds starts from estimating the requirement of funds. It involves a lot of forecasting exercises to identify each and every future requirement of the project and find out the sum required for investment in fixed assets and working capital. Not only the quantum of a requirement is enough, the finance manager has also to decide the timing of that requirement. The timing of funds is very important in financial management because it carries time value of money and we know ‘a dollar today is the same as a dollar 1 year later’.
Financing Decisions/Capital Structure Decisions
Once a reasonable estimate of funds is charted out, the capital structure decisions would finalize two things viz. a) the mix of long-term finance and short-term finance 2) the mix of own funds and debt funds. Longs term funds are normally used to finance long-term requirements such as fixed assets, other long-term investments and a part of the working capital that remains permanently invested at any point of time.
UTILIZATION/APPLICATION OF FUNDS
Working Capital Management Decisions
Working capital management is a very important day to day activity for a finance manager. It spreads over both the broader functions i.e. procurement as well as utilization of funds. It mainly involves management of current assets and current liabilities and keeps the gap between two managed as per the available funds with the organization. Cash management is a big task in working capital management. The finance manager has to ensure that all the branches, units etc have the sufficient cash to address the necessary expenses. The smoother the management of cash, the smoother is the flow of operations of the business.
Dividend decisions mainly involve taking decisions in relation to the payment of dividend to the shareholders. The main concerns to handle is to decide the dividend payout ratio which is dependent on a lot of things like requirement of funds to the company in their projects, the comparison of returns expected in company’s projects and the return available to the shareholder in the normal market, stability of the dividend payment, market expectations, trend of earnings, tax considerations to the shareholders etc.
Investment Decisions/Capital Budgeting
Investment decisions involve utilization/application of funds in the right mix of projects and fixed assets to maximize the returns for the organization. There are various techniques used like Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Payback Period etc.
Financial Analysis/Performance Appraisal
The financial analysis is neither included in the functions of the finance but it is necessary to evaluate all the functions of finance which are performed. This evaluation results in the findings for improvements etc. Performance appraisal assesses the effectiveness of procurement of funds and their respective utilization.
There are other functions like dealing with day to day transactions and negotiating with the creditors, debtors, bankers etc.Last updated on : February 27th, 2018